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熊貓異型養殖資訊

網路轉載 / 2011-07-09

網路資訊,雖然翻譯的不甚完美,但一些數據可以先參考一下。

 Introduction Exclusively coming from Rio Xingu, in the river rapids of Altamira, Para, Brazil, Hypancistrus zebra is clearly a river fish. Keeping them properly is best achieved in a species only aquarium. The tank should be as long and as deep as possible; although they are deep-water fish, its height is not that important. To keep a six to seven strong colony of Hypancistrus zebra, you should at least give them a 80 x 40 cm tank around 100 litres. 介紹 來自申谷河,在河急流的阿爾塔米拉,巴西Para,Hypancistrus斑馬(熊貓異型)顯然是一個河魚。最適當獲得牠們的方法是從水族館。魚缸應該和盡可能長與深,雖然牠們深水魚類,但其的水高度並不重要。為了保持六,七隻的斑馬(熊貓異型)群居,你至少應該給牠們一個80 × 40CM缸子約100升的水。

The Rio Xingu biotope is well documented on the Internet. Hypancistrus zebra are tolerant fish in terms of their husbandry, but as the aim is to maintain and why not, breed them, you're best to give them the best conditions possible. It seems they're doing well in water with a bit less than pH 7, temperature between 28-30 °C. The water and particularly the bottom (H. zebra is after all a bottom dweller) of the tank must be very clean and filtered by a powerful system. A canister filter with a turnover of around 5 to 8 times total tank volume per hour is optimal to achieve the correct level of water treatment. At the opposite of the tank, you can add a 1000 l/hour power head to create maximum current. Feel free to adjust the current as the tank is laid out. But in any case, you must check that there are no "dead zones" where food could accumulate out of sight. 在網路上可查詢到申谷河相關的生活環境資訊。斑馬(熊貓異型)魚對飼養條件是相當能容忍的,但為了維護和培育牠們,盡可能給牠們創造好的生活條件。牠們似乎比較適應於pH值小於7的水,溫度攝氏28-30之間。水質與缸子的底部(斑馬(熊貓異型)畢竟是底棲性魚)必須非常乾淨,尤其是缸子的底部,並且需要一個強大的過濾系統。圓筒過濾器的過濾量約每個小時5至8倍總水量即達到最佳效果,正確處理的水。在缸子的側面,可以添加一個1000升/小時,揚水馬達創造最大水流。隨意調節缸子中的水流。但在任何情況下,必須檢查有沒有“死區”導致食物的堆積累積 。 In such a tank, i.e. one that tries to imitate a river devoid of plants, light is not very important. Yet you still have to use some lighting just to see you fishes (at least) and to simulate the day and night rhythm. The light shouldn't be too bright or on too long as there are no plants to steal food from the omnipresent algae. 例如一個試圖模仿缺乏植物河流的缸子,光線不是很重要。然而,你仍然必須使用一些照明,就是想看看你的魚(至少)和模擬晝夜節律。燈光不要太亮或太長,沒有植物需要獲取食物從無所不在的藻類。 For the bottom you can use fine sand and some river gravel. On this first floor, you can add some bigger stones, caves and drift wood. With these materials you can create the maximum number of hiding places for every member of you zebra community. Use a big stone or a large piece of wood to separate the tank in 2 territories. This is in case you should have enough fishes that develop a territorial community with 2 alpha males. Moreover, the more places they have to hide, the more they will show themselves in full confidence of the ability to retreat to a safe place that isn't already occupied. 對於缸子底部,您可以使用細砂,一些河流礫石。在第一層,你可以添加一些大石頭,洞穴和漂移的木材。有了這些材料,您可以創建最多的藏身之處為你所養的斑馬(熊貓異型)群。使用一塊大石頭或一大塊木頭將缸子分成兩塊領土。假設你應該有足夠的魚群在這兩塊領土區域內培養出兩隻主公魚(強勢的公魚)。此外,牠們必須有更多的地方藏身,會躲藏到安全的區域中而不是在已經被占領的區塊中。 To keep fishes in such conditions (no plants and in a relatively small volume of water), you'll have to be strict with your water change regime. I personally change 30% water each week with half city water (hard in my country) and half osmotic water. The point is to stay very regular (in temperature and conditions) between the new water and your tank water. I've observed that H. zebra don't like too much of a change in any way. 為了讓魚在這種條件下(無植物,在一個相對小體積的水),你必須用你的嚴格管理水質的變化。我個人改變30%的水,每星期用一半的城市供水(有點困難在我的國家),半滲透水(地下水)。關鍵是經常保持這樣的(在相同的溫度和條件下)新水和你的魚缸水之間交換。 我已經注意到,斑馬(熊貓異型)不喜歡太多的環境變化。 Sexing Hypancistrus zebra In a shop, it's hard to even see the difference between a male and a female for several reasons. Even experts can be embarrassed by their inability to accurately spot the differences. Often this is because most of the time the fishes are too young to be sexed or are too stressed to behave normally. But, on sub-adult (6-7cm) and healthy fish, you can have a good guess at gender by following these guidelines: 分別雌雄斑馬(熊貓異型) 在水族館,很難看到已經區分出公魚還有母魚的熊貓異型,原因有好幾個。即使是專家,也無法準確的找到區分公母的正確點。通常這是因為大部分時間魚是太年輕以至於無法區分性別,或者過於壓抑正常的行為。但是,對亞成體(6 – 7cm)和健康的魚,有一些很好猜測的共通準則,如以下原則: On either pectoral fins leading ray, the male develops some quite large "odontodes". Odontodes are teeth-like growths in this case looking like a series of tiny stalagmites running along the fin ray. You can sometimes see a thicker first ray on dorsal fin too. A mature and dominant male will present very short odontodes on his lower body, from behind the dorsal fin to the base of his tail. The female hasn't any of these. Sometimes a female can exhibit very short odontodes on pectoral fins first ray, but nothing like those of a male. That's why it's difficult to sex animals under 7 cm. 其中一項胸鰭末端棘刺,公魚胸鰭有相當的發達“odontodes”(類似牙齒排列狀)棘刺。 Odontodes是像牙齒一樣生長排列在這裡,看上去就像一個一個小石筍連續沿著胸鰭鰭骨生長。有時你也可以發現背部的第一鰭骨是比較粗厚的。一隻成熟和強勢的公魚後半身從尾鰭往前觀察也可發現比較短的棘刺。母魚就沒有這類任何的象徵。有時,母魚有時也可以發現一些比較短的棘刺在胸鰭末端,但這不代表是公魚。這就是為什麼在7cm以下相當難以區分性別。 Immediately under the male's eyes, there is another this time "moustache like" growth, let's call it these "facial odontodes". The adult male has a very long one (about 1 cm) where the female just has a kind of hole with just a tiny little beginning of a moustache. 在公魚的眼睛下方,有另外一個特徵就是鬍子增長,稱這些“臉部odontodes”。成年公魚有很長(約1cm)的鬍子,而母魚只是看起來像一個洞有一點點的鬍子。 The general form of the head is more abrupt with the male. It looks like the nose of a Formula 1 racing car. The bones right above the eyes are sharper than on a female that has a more rounded head. You best can observe this feature from the side. 一般頭部形狀較為陡峭,急轉直下的為公魚。它看起來像一級方程式賽車的車鼻。上述特徵比較圓滑勻稱豐滿頭型的為母魚。最好可以從側面來觀察此特徵。 A male usually seems darker than a female, as if the black was more present than the white stripes. 公魚的體色似乎比母魚暗淡,好似黑色線條比白色線條還要明顯。 I personally have a community of seven fishes with a good male to female ratio. I have four males and three females. That's why I could observe different and "natural" behaviour. We'll see further on what that's all about. 我個人有一個7隻雄貓異型有良好的公母比例。我有4公3母。這就是為什麼我可以觀察不同,“自然”的行為。我們將進一步看到什麼這一回事。 Before buying a Zebra Pleco Take your time to choose your fish. There are a lot of indications you need to have before buying a zebra. Good signs are, for example: 在購買前一斑馬(熊貓異型)Pleco 花點時間選擇你的魚。有很多必須注意的跡象在你購買斑馬(熊貓異型)前。 良好的象徵,例如: The "robe" is very well defined. The black is dark, the white is bright. Dull grey stripes can mean the fish is very stressed but not necessarily in bad conditions. “體表”是很明確。黑線條呈現暗色,白線條呈現明亮。暗淡的灰色條紋可能意味著魚是很緊迫的,不一定是在惡劣的條件。 The fins are all deployed, sometimes with a blue tinge on dorsal, carefully check all the leading fin rays aren't broken or damaged. 所有的魚鰭均能展開,有時帶有藍色色調的背,仔細檢查所有鰭條沒有破損或已損壞。 The fish must be quick, scooting around in jerky movements more than swimming.The best fish is the one which makes you mad because you can't catch it! 魚的游姿必須正常且相當快速不斷回遊。 最好的魚,就是能讓你抓狂,因為你無法抓住牠! Bad signs are, for example: 不好的跡象,例如: A red or rosy spot on the body. It almost always means an internal injury or infection. 身體出現紅色或玫瑰色點。這幾乎是意味著內部損傷或感染。 White stripes not bright but a shade rosy; the fish is weak and bad water conditions (NH3, pH problems). 白色條紋不明亮且灰暗不明,代表魚體弱和水質條件差(氨,pH值問題)。 Starvation signs like a hollow, sunken belly or an eye withdrawn inside the socket. 魚過度飢餓腹部會凹陷呈現中空狀態或眼睛內陷。 General lines of the fish not straight, like bones broken, or fins damaged or destroyed. 魚身體線條不直,其原因有可能是骨頭斷裂,或鰭損壞或毀壞。 A lethargic fish is a problematic fish. 嗜睡或者懶懶的魚是有問題的魚。 Social Behaviour One thing you must know about Hypancistrus zebra is that this fish is as territorial as a cichlid. They live in a community where every male defends his small territory and when you put them together in a "little" area, there will be fights. Fights continue until an alpha male emerges and from this moment, he will be the "only one" for the females, for the food, for the best cave, for everything. 斑馬(熊貓異型)的社會行為 有一件事你必須知道關於Hypancistrus斑馬(熊貓異型)魚,牠們是有如慈鯛科的魚具有領域性質。當你把一群斑馬(熊貓異型)放在一起,讓牠們生活在同一個區域內,每一隻公魚會擁有一個小面積的區域,牠們將會有打鬥。持續的打鬥下去 ,一直到出現主公魚(強勢的公魚),牠將成為母魚“唯一”的公魚,對食物與最好的洞穴將歸牠所有。 Over a whole year I observed that this hierarchy is very often subject to challenge and contestation. I have seen at least three types of fighting. This happens when a new "alpha pretender" comes around the main spawning cave. There's an immediate reaction from the dominant male if he's not guarding eggs. Otherwise, the alpha male just takes care of his fry in the cave. That doesn't mean the pretender will be safe a few days later mind you. 過去整整一年我觀察到這個階級(主公魚)是經常受到挑戰和爭執的結果。我已經觀察到至少有三種類型的戰鬥。這發生在一個新的“主公魚爭取”來自周圍的主要產卵洞穴,具主導地位的公魚需要立即要作出的反應。假如牠沒有保衛魚卵。否則,主公魚只需要在山洞裡照顧牠的幼魚。這並不意味著爭取者往後幾天是無危險的,請注意。 Feeding Hypancistrus zebra As it's a loricariid, you might think this species eats algae and wood or suchlike. It doesn't. Analyses of L046 stomach contents show it eats anything; particularly insects, aquatic larvae, little shrimps, fruits and even meat. 餵養Hypancistrus斑馬(熊貓異型) 由於這是一個loricariid,你可能認為該物種是吃藻類和木材或類似的食物。事實並非如此。分析L046胃內食物顯示它吃過許多東西;特別是昆蟲,水生幼魚,小魚蝦,水果,甚至肉。 I'm lucky to live in a rural setting, next to a tiny river in a forest. So I try to supply my fish with live food as often as I possibly can. So, they are fed live black mosquito larvae, gammarus, daphnia, red worms and sometimes a bit of dry meaty pellets. I used to give them a discus food, but I saw that they prefer living stuff. Furthermore, you can see them hunting in the current, and believe me, that's well worth it. 我很幸運生活在農村,旁邊的森林中有一條小河流。因此,我試著儘可能的提供我的魚吃活的餌料。所以,牠們吃活黑蚊子幼魚,鉤蝦,水蚤,紅蟲,有時有點肉顆粒。我曾經給牠們一個圓餅食物(飼料),但我觀察到牠們喜歡活餌料。此外,你可以看到牠們在水流中狩獵,相信我,這是值得的。 Hypancistrus zebra work with the current to catch their prey. They lurk behind wood or a stone and suddenly "fly" out to fall on the prey with their entire body. Once the prey is grounded, they go backwards, always holding the prey under their body, until they can properly eat it. Once again, the alpha male is the first to eat and if your tank is too small, he won't let the others join in. That's why it's very important to create enough caves and to provide food in several places. 斑馬(熊貓異型)捕捉牠們的獵物。牠們潛伏在木材或石頭後面,突然“飛”出落在牠們的獵物身上。一旦獵物著地,牠們將會倒退,一直保持獵物在身體下方,直到牠們能適當的吃掉。再次主公魚(強勢公魚)是第一個吃,如果你的缸子太小,牠不會讓其牠於加入進來,這就是為什麼創造足夠的洞穴,並提供食物在幾個地方是非常重要的。 Breeding Hypancistrus zebra Like with any other fish, you'll have to meet certain criteria to have a chance of breeding Hypancistrus zebra. It begins maybe with the only real difficulty: you must not only have a pair, but a whole community to give a better than good chance of finding the right ratio of males to females. When you see the actual prices at your LFS, you may find it's a nonsense to try. 育種Hypancistrus斑馬(熊貓異型) 像任何其牠魚類,你還必須符合一個標準,才有機會繁殖Hypancistrus斑馬(熊貓異型)。剛開始真的很困難:不僅要具有一對魚,而且是整個魚群需要一個很好的公母魚比例。當您看到實際價格後,你會發現相當難以嘗試。 If you can overcome this financial outlay and you find yourself with a colony of six to eight individuals, you'll still have to think about how to stimulate them. Overall, I would say there are four major requirements to obtain a first spawn: the food, the current, the breeding caves and the stimulation. 如果你可以克服這種金錢上的支出,可以找尋自己所要的6到8隻的個體飼養在一個小區域內,接著必須考慮如何刺激牠們。總的來說,我認為有四個主要的需求,獲得第一次產卵:食物,水流,產卵洞穴和刺激。 First of all, you have to feed your fishes regularly and to provide them with good quality, varied and a sufficient quantity of live food. Not always that easy. 首先,必須要提定時且定量的提供足夠且品質良好的活餌給你的魚。這並沒有那麼容易。 Second, remember that Rio Xingu is a fast flowing river. You have to move the whole volume of water in your zebra tank and this partly depends on your tank configuration. I guess a good average is 20 times the volume per hour, half in filtering, half just in current. 第二,請記住,申谷河是一個快速流動的河。你必須調整個斑馬(熊貓異型)缸子的水量與水流,這部分取決於你的缸子配置。我猜想,一個很好的平均量流量為每個小時過濾20次,一半過濾,一半水流。 Third, your fishes must be able to find some caves or spots where they feel safe to spawn. I personally use baked clay tubes as breeding caves and these only have one issue: size. 第三,你的魚必須能夠找到一些洞穴或地點是牠們覺得可以安心產卵的。我個人使用烤土管作為繁殖洞穴(陶瓷),這卻有一個問題:大小。 The cave must be just wide enough for the alpha male to enter but also to block the entrance with his body. It must be deep enough for at least the entire body to enter. I've observed that larger caves are often left empty because the male can't entirely obtrude others entrance to the tube. I observed that, in my population, that they prefer a cave that is a oriented slightly against the current. The entrance is not straight on to the current, but just enough to let a bit of water movement inside. I guess it helps the male to keep the tube clean and oxygenated. 這個洞穴必須足夠寬廣的讓主公魚(強勢公魚)進入而且用牠的身體堵住了入口。它必須足夠深,至少能夠讓整個身體進入。我認為,比較大的洞穴通常有太多的空隙,導致公魚不能完全堵住入口。我觀察到,在我的魚群,牠們喜歡的洞穴是 稍微面對水流。入口不直接有水流,而是可以讓一些水流流進洞穴中。我想這有助於公魚保持洞穴中清潔和氧氣。 Fourth, you must obtain the first spawn. I've heard about a lot of things possibly stimulating the fishes. I took a chance with the 'natural' process. I mean giving them all the food and conditions they need to 'get in the mood'. I simulated a changing of season. I begun by feeding them heavily with very rich food for a whole month (be careful with the water changes). Then I began the following regime: 第四,必須取得第一產卵。我已經聽說了很多東西可能會刺激魚。我有機會嘗試'自然'的過程。我的意思是給牠們所有需要的食物和環境條件是要'到達心情'。我模擬季節的交換。在整整一個月餵食牠們非常豐富的食物之後(小心水質的變化)。開始下列規律的改變: 1st day: Normal temperature 28°C. Switch the heater off and let the temperature fall to 22°C over two days. 第1天:常溫28攝氏。切換加熱器關閉,讓氣溫下降至22攝氏2天。 3rd to 8th day: Stopped feeding, no more water changes and let the temperature stay at 22°C 第3至第8天:停止餵養,沒有更多的水的變化,讓溫度保持在攝氏22 9th to 17th day : Raise 1°C per day until 30°C and in the meantime give live food again, progressively more over time. 第9至第17天:每天提高一度直到攝氏30度,在此期間再給予食用,隨著時間的推移逐步。 18th day: Water change of 50% with similar water (as explained above) 第18天:換水50%(如上面所述) If the first spawn is sometimes difficult to obtain, a mature female will lay eggs, in good conditions, every four to five weeks. This information is crucial in your choice of population. Indeed, as the alpha male is the only one the females would choose, if you have more than 2 females, your male will soon be exhausted. 通常第一次產卵,有時很難得到,在良好的環境條件下,每四到五個星期一隻成熟的母魚會下蛋,。對於你的魚群此訊息是非常重要的關鍵。事實上,在主公魚(強勢公魚)是母魚唯一的選擇,如果你有超過2母魚,你的公魚將很快耗盡。 As I write in early 2005, my alpha male is actually in uninterrupted spawning and guarding conditions from March 2004, at a cycle of one spawn every two or three weeks. Each of my three females courts him all the time. That means he often has, in the same cave, a clutch of eggs, a few fry from two weeks earlier and another female, waiting for him to let her in. 在我寫於2005年初,我的主公魚(強勢公魚)其實是在不間斷的產卵及保衛魚卵從2004年3月,整個產卵週期為每兩三個星期。而我的三隻母魚在這段時間內不斷的輪流引誘牠。這意味著牠經常在同一山洞,保衛著魚卵,少數的幼魚從兩個星期或者更早孵化後同時另一隻母魚也正等著牠讓她進來。 This production line has several consequences. First of all, as he can't leave for taking a rest or simply eating, he sometimes eats a part of the eggs. I never saw him eating fry. Second, as he is exhausted, he lowers the quality of guarding fry, which causes a greater fry mortality rate in the first fortnight of their existence. 這樣的生產線會有幾個結果。首先,因為牠不能離開所以無法進食,造成牠有時吃掉部分的卵。我從來沒有見過牠吃幼魚。第二,因為牠用盡氣力,所以不容易在頭兩個星期保衛幼魚,這會導致大量的死亡率。 Normal Breeding If you have the perfect colony of H. zebra, and a bit of luck too, you'll soon observe the following behaviour. First of all, the male will choose a cave that he will clean of all sand, gravel or detritus he will find. He uses his body as a tool to extract all the unwanted substrate from the tube. 正常的繁殖 如果你有完美的繁殖熊貓異型的條件,並有點好運氣,你很快就會看到以下行為。首先,公魚會找到且選擇一個山洞裡,牠將清除所有沙,礫石或碎屑。牠用身體作為工具來阻擋洞口。 Once the cave is ready, the male goes inside and simulates the ventilation of an imaginary spawn with his fins. He creates a light current with this ventilation and this behaviour alerts the females that he's ready. The alpha female positions herself around the entrance of the cave and waits for the male to let her in. After a time, the male lets her enter and follows her in thus blocking further entrance with his whole body. 一旦洞穴準備好了,公魚會進入洞內部和模擬產卵時搧鰭讓水流動的動作。牠建立了些許的水流,這種行為提醒母魚,牠已經準備好了。地位比較高的母魚將會在洞穴附近等待公魚讓她進入洞穴中,一段時間後,公魚讓母魚進入洞穴中並且尾隨進入,更進一步的用整個身體阻擋。 He stimulates the female with very light shivers of his whole body in brief repeated sequences. After a while, the female answers with the same behaviour. This "nuptial" sequence lasts from one to four days, depending on the preparation and maturity of both partners. During this time, they do not feed or leave of the tube. 公魚會用全身些微的抖動刺激母魚,不斷的重複循環。過了一段時間,母魚的回應同樣的行為。這種“婚姻型為”順序將持續1至4天,根據兩隻魚所準備和成熟的程度。在此期間,牠們不會進食或者離開洞穴。 Depending on water and tank conditions, the female will lay bigger or smaller clutch of eggs. In very good conditions, she will lay up to 18 eggs in a clutch (this is the biggest spawn obtained by my population to date), but those eggs will be smaller. In less good conditions, she will lay a smaller clutch but the eggs will be bigger and rougher. This is, of course, not a rule, but just an observation made on more than 20 spawns in a year. 根據水質和缸子的條件下,母魚將會產下較大或較小的卵。在非常良好的條件,母魚將會產下相當於18個卵(這是我的魚群中數目最多的卵),但這些卵會更小。在不到良好的條件,她將會產下比較少的卵,且卵將越來越粗糙。這是當然,不是規則,而是觀察了一年內20多次產卵。 As soon as the eggs are laid, the female is expelled and the male begins the guarding phase. He makes then real ventilation with his fins and, almost all the time, manipulates the clutch of eggs with his mouth. He cleans them and eats the infertile ones. The time to hatch is between four to seven days, depending on the temperature and the conditions. 只要產卵後,公魚會驅逐母魚和開始保衛階段。然後,公魚開始搧動鰭製造新鮮的水流,以及熟練的用嘴巴清除卵。他將清除卵,且吃了不孵化的卵。孵化的時間是4至7天,根據溫度和條件。 Even after hatching, the male will guard the larvae, cleaning and aerating them. A new father will probably loose a few larvae in the current of ventilation. Those have virtually no chance of surviving without ventilation or at least some parental care. On a tank with a sand and gravel substrate, you'll find some tiny predators: snails! 即使在孵化,公魚將負責守衛幼魚,清潔和引進空氣給予牠們。一個新的父親可能會因為含氧水流而損失一些幼魚。如果沒有含氧的水流或者親魚的照顧這些幼魚將沒有辦法存活。在缸子的砂礫底,你會發現一些小捕食者:蝸牛!

In fact, the larvae of Hypancistrus zebra have such a big yolk sac they can't move on normal ground. They are immobilised between pieces of gravel and become very easy prey for snails. You have a few choices here. 事實上,斑馬(熊貓異型)的幼於有一個大的卵黃囊所以無法正常的在地上移動。幼魚是容易卡在碎石和變得非常容易被蝸牛捕食。您有幾種選擇這裡。 Let them die Can you really assume to loose the 90% of your first zebra spawn, just to educate this new father ? I couldn't. 讓牠們死 你真的能接受你第一次斑馬(熊貓異型)產卵,有90%的損失,只是為了教育這個新新爸爸嗎?我不能。

Artificial care As soon as you see the hatch, you can probably take the larvae with a pipe and lay them in a specific nest, but you'll soon discover that without the attention of a father, they catch infection and die. You can take the whole cave (with male and eggs) and put them in a protected nest in the same tank. The problem is that you stress the male who may decide to eat the spawn. Moreover, extracting the tube, you will change the hierarchy and when you will replace the male in the tank for another cycle, you risk to interrupting the spawning, because of this change I have tried to take the clutch of eggs and to lay it in a very well aerated nest by an air-stone, but if the result is better, I still have a lot of dead fry. Too many. 人工孵化 當您看到孵化,您可能會採集幼魚,且將牠們在放在一個特定的環境,但你很快就會發現,如果沒有親魚照顧,很快牠們會感染和死亡。你可以把整個洞穴(公魚和卵)和把它們放在同一個缸子裡的受保護環境中在。問題是,此動作所導致的緊迫,會造成公魚可以決定吃卵。此外,提取產卵管,你將改變整個階級,當你將影響公魚在缸子的另一個週期,而風險是中斷產卵,由於這種改變我已經試圖的將卵取出放置一個由發泡石製造含氧量水流良好的孵化環境中,而結果是好,不過我仍然有許多死掉的幼魚。太多。

Bare bottom A third solution is to let the whole process play out in the tank, but on a bare bottom. That's not a bad way but natural selection is aggressive too and you often can't find or take pictures of your babies. 裸缸 第三個解決辦法是讓整個過程在缸子中完全結束,但是在一個什麼都沒有的底部。這不是壞方式,但自然選擇的方式也是積極的一種,你常常無法找到或拍到幼魚。

Growing and Going On The larvae arrive very quickly at the juvenile stage. During the first two weeks, the larvae will take 1 mm each day, living on their yolk sacs. Between, the 15th and the 18th day, the yolk sac is consumed and there is a critical phase : the digestive system requires the juvenile eat by himself. 生長與持續 幼魚很快到達青少年階段。在頭兩個星期,幼魚會每天1mm,依賴卵黃囊存活。第15和第18天之間,卵黃囊消耗完,這是一個關鍵的階段:消化系統需要幼魚自行覓食。

I've tried several types of food for those young appetites. You can start with microworm but I've observed that they don't know when to stop eating and sometimes, they die of too much food. Personally, I use SERA Viformo tabs imbibed with red mosquito larvae juice (yuck!). One tab per ten juveniles twice daily (morning and evening). 我已經試過幾種類型的幼魚食物。你可以使用微蟲但我認為,牠們不知道什麼時候停止進食,有時,牠們死於太多食物。個人而言,我用SERA Viformo tabs紅色蚊子幼蟲的果汁。幼魚每日兩次(早,晚)。

Thereafter, the growth rate reduces a bit and you'll have to wait till the end of week three for your babies to reach 20mm. After four weeks, he will be around 23mm and after three months, he'll be around 30mm. Except accident, your fry is safe after this first month and will be OK until reaching 4.5 cm after a year and more or less, depending on the food quality and quantity, and at six to seven cm at two years old.So now, you just have to try it! 此後,增長率逐漸降低,你必須要等到三週結束後幼魚達到20mm。 4週後,牠將約23毫米和3個月後,牠將30毫米左右。除了意外,第一個月後您的幼魚會相當穩定,一直到達到4.5厘米,一年後,或多或少,根據食物質量和數量,並在6至7厘米兩歲。 所以,現在,你只需要試試!

Brief "side to side" fight The alpha male doesn't permit "pre-spawning" behaviour from another male on his territory. If another male tries his luck, it breaks into a fight and if the pretender tries to resist, you'll see a kind of ballet, very short, but brutal. Each male tries to capture his rival's head with his facial odontodes deployed. As soon as they "lock horns" they make big and sweeping moves with their entire bodies to inflict the most damage to each other. Usually these ripping movements are very short, not more than five to ten seconds and the winner stays in place, standing bigger and more enflamed than ever, as if to say : "I AM the boss, RIGHT !?!" The vanquished loser hides away and stays very calm for several hours. 簡介“對立”的鬥爭 主公魚(強勢公魚)不允許另一隻公魚在牠的地盤內“預產卵”的行為。如果其牠公魚試圖嘗試,主公魚(強勢公魚)中斷該行為並且鬥爭,如果非主公魚試圖反抗,你會看到一種種鬥爭舞蹈,很短,但殘酷。每個公魚試圖勇臉上的鬍子抓取對手的頭。當牠們“鎖定牛角”,牠們做出重大與徹底的移動身體去打擊對方,並造成對方的傷害。通常,這些爭鬥動作很短,不超過5到10秒,獲勝者留在原地,比以往的時候更明顯的行為,彷彿在說:“我是老大,沒錯!?!”戰敗者和失敗者躲走並解非常平靜幾個小時。

"Showing off" and intimidation When two subdominant males are fighting for their place in the pecking order, it's relatively calm and you could say it is all just superficial showing off. But this engagement can last several hours. They don't go for each other as viciously as in a real fight. They just chase and weigh-up their opponent over a few hours usually causing a real mess in the tank. Normally this ends with a light injury on the dorsal or tail fins. Feeding live food seems to trigger these contests. It seems to excite them and put them a belligerent mood for fights and shows of strength. “炫耀”和恐嚇 當兩個一樣優勢公魚爭互相取自己的位置,在最後的名次,你可以說這一切只是表面的,是炫耀。但是,這種接觸可以持續幾個小時。牠們不會去互相惡劣的真打。牠們只是追逐,並衡量牠們的對手多了幾個小時此時往往造成缸子的紛亂。通常情況下,結束時只有背鰭或尾鰭會有輕傷害。餵食活的食物似乎會觸發這些競爭。這似乎會刺激牠們,讓牠們的好戰心引起打架,顯示實力。

"Pseudo spawning" with bad injuries The worst case is what I call "pseudo spawning", because, except with great and almost permanent observation, the aquarist won't immediately realize that there's a fight going on. The two protagonists can be very seriously injured, sometimes fatally. I witnessed this twice in the period between March and November 2004. The alpha male vacated his favourite cave for a few hours. Meanwhile the second male thought it was a good idea to come in for a visit and, why not, to stay. The alpha male came back and I only realized after 4 days, that it was NOT a spawn, but a serious fight. They were blocked in the cave one behind the other, and the alpha male was literally eating the second. You can see on the picture below the result after five days. “偽產卵”造成不良受傷 最壞的情況是我稱之為“偽產卵”,因為,除了大量與永久的觀察,養於愛好者也不會立即意識到有一個爭鬥正在進行。這兩個主角會非常嚴重的受傷,有時候甚至是致命。我看到這兩次是在3月至2004年11月。主公魚(強勢公魚)退出牠最喜歡的洞穴幾個小時。同時,第二個公魚進入了洞穴中並且居住了下來。主公魚(強勢公魚)回來,我只知道4天之後,這不是一個產卵行為,而是一場嚴重的鬥爭。主公魚(強勢公魚)爭鬥中會嚴重的傷害第二公魚甚至咬死。

 

熊貓異型

別名:斑馬異型
英文名:Zebra pleco
學名:Hypancistrus zebra
原產地/分佈:南美洲
成魚體長:8 - 10 cm
性格:溫和
適宜溫度:21 - 27 ℃
酸鹼度:PH 6.5 - 7.4
硬度(dGH): 3 - 12 °N
活動水層:底層
繁殖方式:卵生

L46熊貓異型簡介  

熊貓異形是異形界中人氣最高的魚種,很少有人不被他那美麗的線條所吸引,亦有許多人是因為它才加入飼養異形的行列。

熊貓異形的成長速度相當緩慢,要在市場上發現10cm的個體相當不易,一般進口尺寸約在4~6cm左右。飼養上並無太大困難,就其口器來看,屬於偏肉食性的異形種。若是想以此魚來達到缸中除藻的功能,我想會大失所望。因此建議除了一般異形飼料外,多補充動物性餌料,如肉類或豐年蝦。

同種間有爭鬥性,因此環境布置上,應以岩石及洞穴來營造其原生環境,因為熊貓異形屬於岩石區的魚種。其活動力不強,在開燈狀態下,總是躲在自己所屬的地盤,不讓其它魚只靠近。

時有耳聞其繁殖成功案例,公母分辨可以頭型,棘刺,腹部形狀來作判定。

 


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